The Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci, writing a few years later in his Prison Notebooks (1928/1971), however, argued that the working class is most afflicted by the power of the dominant class’s ideology. If not deceived by outright illusions, their minds are subject to ‘contradictory consciousness,’ with confused and fragmented judgments on the nature of the world they inhabit. This is because the ruling class is hegemonic: controlling not only property but—even more importantly—the means of producing beliefs about reality. These include religion, education, and more recently, the mass media. Thus the working class is severely crippled in its ability to revolt against the dominant order, or even think critically about it. (For modern examples, see Gitlin  on the power of television, or the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s  theory of the stratification produced by differences in personal taste and styles of entertainment, which he calls ‘cultural capital.’)
In other words, in less elevated langauge, what we prefer to hear is what the media tell us we prefer to hear.